Positive Emotions Scale: Construct Development and Validation
Keywords:Positive emotions, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, psychometric properties
The purpose of the paper was to develop an indigenous and comprehensive scale to measure positive emotions and to establish its psychometric properties. In the first phase, the item pool of 40 items was generated by an in-depth review of literature, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews. Content Validity Index (CVI) was established on 6 expert?s ratings. The total scale CVI calculated was .84. Pilot study was conducted (n = 50) on the preliminary scale to measure its face validity. In the second phase, internal consistency and dimensionality of scale was empirically measured through Exploratory Factor Analysis (N = 273). Ten factors (i.e. Joy, Hope, Gratitude, Compassion, Gratitude towards God, Satisfaction, Awe, Inspiration, Love, and Humor) emerged. In the third phase, to confirm the factor structure of the Scale the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (N = 174) was run. Psychometric properties were established (? = .96). In the final phase, the convergent and discriminant validity was established by using Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Finally, the Positive Emotions Scale, measuring ten main constructs of positive emotions was constructed.
Ahmad, M., Muazzam, A., Anjum, A., Visvizi, A., & Nawaz, R. (2020). Linking work-family conflict (WFC) and talent management: Insights from a developing country. Sustainability, 12(7), 2861-2878. doi:10.3390 /su12072861
Algoe, S. B. (2012). Find, remind, and bind: The functions of gratitude in everyday relationships. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(6), 455-469. Anjum, A., Muazzam, A., Manzoor, F., Visvizi, A., & Nawaz, R. (2019). Mediating bullying and strain in higher education institutions: The case of Pakistan. Sustainability, 11(8), 2244-2255. doi:10.3390/su11082244
Argyle, M. (2013). The psychology of happiness (2nd ed.). UK: Routledge. Averill, J. R. (1997). The emotions: An integrative approach. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp.513-541). USA: Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-012 134645-4/50022-6
Basso, M. R., Schefft, B. K., Ris, M. D., & Dember, W. N. (1996). Mood and global-local visual processing. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2(3), 249-255.
Carr, A. (2011). Positive psychology the science of happiness and human strengths. London: Routledge.
Davis, L. L. (1992). Instrument review: Getting the most from a panel of experts. Applied Nursing Research, 5(4), 194-197. Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26(3-4), 325-346. Diener, E. (2009). Subjective well-being. In E. Diener (Ed.), The science of well-being. (pp.11-58). Dordrecht: Springer. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. Diener, E., Smith, H., & Fujita, F. (1995). The personality structure of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(1), 130-141. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1995-40425-001
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Biswas-Diener, R., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., & Oishi, S. (2009). New measures of well-being. In E. Diener (Ed.), Assessing well-being (pp.247-266). Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1007/ 978-90-481-2354-4_12 Ejaz, B., Muazzam, A., Anjum, A., Pollock, G., & Nawaz, R. (2020). Measuring the scale and scope of social anxiety among students in Pakistani higher education institutions: An alternative social anxiety scale. Sustainability, 12(6), 2164-2177. doi10.3390/su12062164
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6(3-4), 169-200.
Emmons, R. A., & Paloutzian, R. F. (2003). The psychology of religion. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 377-402. Estrada, C. A., Isen, A. M., & Young, M. J. (1997). Positive affect integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 72 (1), 117-135.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382-388.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In P. Devine, & A. Plant (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 47, pp.1-53). USA: Academic Press.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313-332. Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13(2), 172-175. Fredrickson, B. L., & Kahneman, D. (1993). Duration neglect in retrospective evaluations of affective episodes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(1), 45-55.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Levenson, R. W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12(2), 191-220.
Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso, R. A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M. M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24(4), 237-258. Green, D. P., Goldman, S. L., & Salovey, P. (1993). Measurement error masks bipolarity in affect ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6), 1029-1041. Hart, T. (1998). Inspiration: Exploring the experience and its meaning. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 38(3), 7-35.
Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Love, sex, and intimacy: Their psychology, biology, and history. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Haynes, S. N., Richard, D., & Kubany, E. S. (1995). Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 238-247.
Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2005). The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(2), 227-239. Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082. Hoyle, R. H. (1995). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. New York: Sage Publication. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. Hwang, J. Y., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: An abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr?s compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56(4), 421-428. Isen, A. M., & Means, B. (1983). The influence of positive affect on decision-making strategy. Social Cognition, 2(1), 18-31. Isen, A. M., Rosenzweig, A. S., & Young, M. J. (1991). The influence of positive affect on clinical problem solving. Medical Decision Making, 11(3), 221-227. Kahneman, D., Diener, E., & Schwarz, N. (1999). Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Krause, N. (2006). Gratitude toward God, stress, and health in late life. Research on Aging, 28(2), 163-183. Larsen, R. J., & Diener, E. (1992). Promises and problems with the circumplex model of emotion. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology, No. 13. Emotion (pp.25-59). New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lee, Y. C., Lin, Y. C., Huang, C. L., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). The construct and measurement of peace of mind. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(2), 571-590. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Larsen, R. J. (2009). Measuring positive emotions. In E. Diener E (Ed.), Assessing well-being (pp.139-155). Dordrecht: Springer. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 616-628.
Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382-385.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137-155. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112-127. doi:10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.52 Nunnally, J. C. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Oatley, K., Keltner, D., & Jenkins, J. M. (2006). Understanding emotions. (2nd ed.). London: Blackwell Publishing.
Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (7th ed.). London: Routledge. Piedmont, R. L. (2014) Inter-item correlations. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 3303-3304). Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_1493
Rand, K. L., & Cheavens, J. S. (2009). Hope theory. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology: Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp.323-333). London: Oxford University Press.
Rasheed, R. (2012). Development of an indigenous scale of meaning in life and assessment of meaning in life in relation to stress, social support and psychological wellbeing (Unpublished Mphil thesis). Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2011). Introduction to psychometric theory. New York: Taylor & Francis. Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S., Krapp, A., & Renninger, A. (2014). The role of interest in learning and development. New York: Psychology Press. Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Appraisal theory: Overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Series in affective science. Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp.3-19). London: Oxford University Press. Rosenberg, E. L. (1998). Levels of analysis and the organization of affect. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 247-270. Russell, J. A., & Barrett, L. F. (1999). Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(5), 805-819. Schimmack, U., & Diener, E. (1997). Affect intensity: Separating intensity and frequency in repeatedly measured affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1313-1329. Seligman, M. E. (2004). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Simon and Schuster. Seligman, M. E. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. Policy, 27(3), 60-61.
Shamim, A., & Muazzam, A. (2018). Positive emotions as predictors in the management of Type II Diabetes. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16(2), 27-33. Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D., & John, O. P. (2006). Positive emotion dispositions differentially associated with Big Five personality and attachment style. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2), 61-71. Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D., & Mossman, A. (2007). The nature of awe: Elicitors, appraisals, and effects on self-concept. Cognition and Emotion, 21(5), 944-963.
Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hypothesis: There is hope. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications (pp.3-21). Cambridge: Academic Press. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., ... & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585. Sprecher, S., & Fehr, B. (2005). Compassionate love for close others and humanity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(5), 629-651. Stevens, J. P. (1992). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). New York: Routledge. Tellegen, A., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affect. Psychological Science, 10(4), 297-303. Thrash, T. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2003). Inspiration as a psychological construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 871-889. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded form. Ames: The University of Iowa. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. Wynd, C. A., Schmidt, B., & Schaefer, M. A. (2003). Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(5), 508-518. Zuckerman, M., & Lubin, B. (1985). Manual for the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.