Dispositional Positive Emotions and Employee Engagement in University Teachers: Mediating Role of Appreciative Inquiry


  • Iqra Ameer Quaid-i-Azam University, islamabad
  • Aisha Zubair Quaid-i-Azam University, islamabad


Dispositional positive emotions, appreciative inquiry, employee engagement, university teachers


The present research was conducted to explore the role of dispositional positive emotions and appreciative inquiry in employee engagement among university teachers and mediating role of appreciative inquiry in predicting employee engagement from positive dispositional emotions. A convenient sample (N = 237) of university teachers including both men and women with age ranged from 29 to 54 years (mean age = 39.22) was acquired. The major constructs of the study were assessed with Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale (Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), Appreciative Inquiry Scale (Clayton, 2015), and Employee Engagement Survey (Wilson, 2009). Results showed that dispositional positive emotions were positively associated with appreciative inquiry and employee engagement, while appreciative inquiry displayed positive association with employee engagement. Appreciative inquiry mediated the relationship between dispositional positive emotions and employee engagement. Findings further showed significant gender differences indicating that women were high on positive dispositional emotions, appreciative inquiry and employee engagement as compared to men. Group differences on job experience showed that employees with more work experience exhibited better dispositional positive emotions, appreciative inquiry, and work related engagement as compared to other groups. 2x2x3 analysis revealed that women teachers with more work experience displayed more dispositional positive emotions, appreciative inquiry and employee engagement.


Berrisford, S. (2005). Using appreciative inquiry to drive change at the BBC. Strategic Communication Management, 9(3), 22-25. Bhuvanaiah, T., & Raya, R. P. (2014). Employee engagement: Key to organizational success. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 11(4), 61-71. Clayton, M. (2015). Appreciative inquiry and employee engagement (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Psychology, Washington University, USA. Retrieved from https://www.trinitydc.edu/ bgs/ files/2014/ 07/7_CLAYTON-PUB-COPY-2015.pdf Conkright, T. A. (2011). Improving performance and organization value through a virtual appreciative inquiry summit. Performance Improvement, 50(6), 31-37. Cooperrider, D., & Whitney, D. (2007). Appreciative inquiry: A positive revolution in change. In P. Holman (Ed.), The change handbook the definitive resource on today's best methods for engaging whole systems. (2nd ed., p. 75). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Cooperrider, D. L., & Godwin, L. (2011). Positive Organization Development: Innovation-Inspired Change in an Economy and Ecologyrs of Strengths. In K. Cameron & G. Spreitzer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship (pp. 737-750). New York: Oxford University Press. Doggett, C., & Lewis, A. (2013). Using Appreciative Inquiry to facilitate organisational change and develop professional practice within an Educational Psychology Service. Educational and Child Psychology, 30(4), 124-143. Drew, S. W., & Wallis, J. L. (2014). The use of appreciative inquiry in the practices of large-scale organizational change. Journal of General Management, 39(4), 3-26.

Ferguson, A. (2007). Employee engagement: Does it exist, and if so, how does it relate to performance, other constructs and individual differences? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23, 133-147. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. The psychology of Gratitude, 3(12), 145-166. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47(1), 1-53. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1045-1062. Hellevig, J. (2012). Employee Engagement: Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 740-756. Johnson, G. (2004). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3-30. Kim, H. J., Shin, K. H., & Swanger, N. (2009). Burnout and engagement: A comparative analysis using the Big Five personality dimensions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(1), 96-104. Kong, Y. (2009). A study on the job engagement of company employees. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 1(2), 65-68. Langelaan, S., Bakker, A. B., Van Doornen, L. J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement: Do individual differences make a difference?. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(3), 521-532. Loehr, J., & Schwartz, T. (2003). The power of full engagement: What is engagement. Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice, 15, 326-333. Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Wanke, E., David, A., Klapp, B. F., & Danzer, G. (2014). Exploring the impact of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and organizational resources on work engagement. Work, 47(4), 491-500. Martinez, C. D. (2002). Appreciative inquiry as an organizational development tool. Performance Improvement Journal, 41(8), 34-39. Mohsen, G., Rasoul, R. E., & Ali, M. (2015). Relationship between dispositional positive emotions and creativity: Synergistic role of trait positive affect. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 4(42), 42-49. Morsillo, J., & Fisher, A. (2007). Appreciative inquiry with youth to create meaningful community projects. The Australian Community Psychologist, 19(1), 47-61. Peelle, H. E. (2006). Appreciative inquiry and creative problem solving in cross-functional feams. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 42(4), 447. Richer, M., Ritchie, J., & Marichionni, C. (2009). If we can't do more, let's do it differently: Using appreciative inquiry to promote innovative ideas for better health care work environments. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(8), 947-955. Saenghiran, N. (2013). Towards enhancing happiness at work: A case study. Social Research Reports, 25(21). Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619. Sarwar, M., & Awan, R. N. (2010). Location and gender differences in deviant behavior among primary school teachers. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 97-101. Schaufeli, W. (2013). What is engagement. Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice, 15, 321-323 Schaufeli, W. B., & Baker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and the relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293-315. Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D., & John, O. P. (2006). Positive emotion dispositions differentially associated with Big Five personality and attachment style. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2), 61-71. Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D., & Mossman, A. (2007). The nature of awe: Elicitors, appraisals, and effects on self-concept. Cognition and Emotion, 21(5), 944-963. Shuck, B., Reio, T. G., & Rocco, T. S. (2011). Employee engagement: An examination of antecedent and outcome variables. Human Resource Development International, 14(4), 427-445. Subramanian, R. (2003). Appreciative inquiry: change at the speed of imagination. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2(1), 103-105. Watson, S. E. (2013). Who owns the gap? (part two): The application of appreciative inquiry to evaluation. Industrial and Commercial Training, 45(7), 392-396. Wilson, K. (2009). A Survey of Employee Engagement. University of Missouri, Columbia.