Translation and Validation of Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II for Pakistani Adults
Keywords:Personal growth initiative, planfulness, readiness for change, intentional behavior, using resources
Personal growth initiative is a person's active and intentional involvement in changing and developing as a person. Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) provides evidence of multidimensionality of construct of personal growth. Present research was accomplished in three phases with aim to translate and validate PGIS-II in Urdu. Phase 1 addressed the translation of measure through forward-backward translation method. To establish the cross-language validity, translated and the English version was administered on bilingual university students (N = 100). Reliability of both versions was determined by computing test-retest technique with 15 days interval. Phase-2 was aimed to establish the construct validity by carrying out. Exploratory Factor Analysis on adult women (N = 300) with age range of 21 to 52 years. Results showed four factors namely, Planfulness, Readiness for Change, Intentional Behavior, and Using Resources are reflection of personal growth initiative. Phase-3 of the research was aimed to confirm the factorial validity on sample of women (N = 300) with age range from 19 to 50 years. Findings confirmed four factor solutions and suggested that PGIS-II Urdu version can be utilized as a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of personal growth initiative among adults in Pakistan.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2014). Amos (Version 23.0) [Computer Program]. Chicago: IBM SPSS.
Ayub, N., & Iqbal, S. (2012). The relationship between personal growth initiative, psychological wellbeing, and psychological distress among adolescents. Journal of Teaching and Education, 6(1), 101-107.
Barrett, P. (2007). Structural equation modeling: Adjudging model fit. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 815-824.
Bartley, D. F., & Robitschek, C. (2000). Career exploration: A multivariate analysis of predictors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(1), 63-81.
Bentler, P. M. (2007). On tests and indices for evaluating structural models. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 825-829.
Bhattacharya, A., & Mehrotra, S. (2014). Personal Growth Initiative Scale: How does it perform in Indian youth samples? Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 40(1), 122-129.
Borja, S. E., & Callahan, J. L. (2009). The trauma outcome process assessment model: A structural equation model examination of adjustment. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 18(5), 532-552.
Brislin, R. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185-216.
Brislin, R. W. (1976). Translation: Application and research. New York: Gardner Press Inc.
Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford.
Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge.
Callahan, J. L., Borja, S. E., Herbert, G. L., Maxwell, K., & Ruggero, C. J. (2013). Test of the trauma outcome process assessment model: One model of individual and environmental factors to explain adjustment. Traumatology, 19(4), 268-279.
Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioural Research, 1, 245.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: An introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 1-11.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and the ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self–determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
DiStefano, C. (2002). Effects of ordered categorical data with confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 327-346.
DiStefano, C., & Hess, B. (2005). Using confirmatory factor analysis for construct validation: An empirical review. Journal of Psycho-educational Assessment, 23, 225-241.
DiStefano, C., Zhu, M., & Mindrila, D. (2009). Understanding and using factor scores: Considerations for the applied researcher. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 14(20), 1-11.
Fan, X., Thompson, B., & Wang, L. (1999). The effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on SEM fit indices. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 56-83.
Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Freitas, C. P. P., Damásio, B. F., Kamei, H. H., Tobo, P. R., Koller, S. H., & Robitschek, C. (2018). Personal Growth Initiative Scale – II: Adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian Version. Paidéia (Ribeirã oPreto), 28, e2806. doi:10.1590/1982–43 27e2806
Groves, J., & Engel, R. (2007). The German adaptation and standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Journal of Personality Assessment, 88, 49-56.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to under-parameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424-453.
Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
Jackson, D. L. (2007). The effect of the number of observations per parameter in misspecified confirmatory factor analytic models. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 48-76.
Jackson D. L., Gillaspy J. A., & Purc–Stephenson. R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14(1), 6-23.
Kashubeck–West, S., & Meyer, J. (2008). The well–being of women who are late deafened. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 55(4), 463-472.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
Lasun, G., & Odufowokan, B. A. (2012). Transformational effects of upgrading Nigerian colleges of education to universities in the globalization era: A perspective of staff psychological well–being. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 2(1), 185-204.
Liaquat, F., & Rafique, R. (2013). Parenting styles, personal growth initiative and perceived social barriers in career decision making. [Abstract]. Punjab University Psychological Abstracts, 22. Retrieved from http:// webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:dsqiWcwsqpsJ:pu.edu.pk/images/image/Departments/appsy/Psychological-Abstract-2011-13.pdf +&cd=1& hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk
MacCallum, R. C. (1995). Model specification: Procedures, strategies, and related issues. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
MacCallum, R. C., & Austin, J. T. (2000). Applications of structural equation modeling in psychological research. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 201-226.
Malik, N. I., Yasin, G., & Shahzadi, H. (2015). Personal growth initiative and self–esteem as predictors of academic achievement among students of technical training institutes. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 35(2), 703-714.
Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., & Hau, K. T. (1996). An evaluation of incremental fit indices: A clarification of mathematical and empirical properties. In G. A. Marcoulides, & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis–testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320-341.
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., Balla, J. R., & Grayson, D. (1998). Is more ever too much? The number of indicators per factor in confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioural Research, 33, 181-220.
Maslow, A. H. (1945). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7, 64-82.
Medsker, G. J., Williams, L. J., & Holahan, P. J. (1994). A review of current practices for evaluating causal models in organizational behavior and human resources management research. Journal of Management, 20, 439-464.
Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. L. (2007). An examination of self–compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 908-916.
Ogunyemi, A. O., & Mabekoje, S. O. (2007). Self-efficacy, risk-taking behavior and mental health as predictors of personal growth initiative among university undergraduates. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 5(2), 349-362.
Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30(4), 183-198.
Robitschek, C. (1999). Further validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counselling and Development, 31, 197-210.
Robitschek, C., & Kashubeck, S. (1999). A structured model of family functioning and psychological health: The mediating effects of hardiness and personal growth orientation. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 46, 159-172.
Robitschek, C., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Keyes’s model of mental health with personal growth initiative as a parsimonious predictor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 321-329.
Robitschek, C., Ashton, M. W., Spering, C. C., Geiger, N., Byers, D., Schotts, G. C., & Thoen, M. (2012). Development and psychometric properties of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 59, 274-287.
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. l. M. (1995). The structure of psychological wellbeing revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In Alexander von Eye and Clifford C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications to developmental research (pp. 399-419). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sharma, S. K., & Rani, R. (2013). Relationship of personal growth initiative with self-efficacy among university postgraduate students. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(16), 125-135.
Sultan, S. (2011). Stigmatization: Addressing self-esteem and personal growth in patients with psychological and physiological illness. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 31(1), 29-36.
Thoen, M. A., & Robitschek, C. (2013). Intentional growth training: Developing an intervention to increase personal growth initiative. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 5(2), 149-170.
Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Tokuyoshi, Y., & Iwasaki, S. (2014). Development and psychometric evaluation of a Japanese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II. Shinrigaku Kenkyu. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 85(2), 178-187.
Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Hambleton, P. M. (1996).Translating tests: Some practical guidelines. European Psychologist, 1(2), 89-99.
Villacieros, M., Serrano, I., Bermejo, J. C., Magaña, M., & Carabias, R. (2014). Social support and psychological well-being as possible predictors of complicated grief in a cross–section of people in mourning. Ana–les de Psicología (Annals of Psychology), 30(3), 944-951.
Weigold, I. K., & Robitschek, C. (2011). Agentic personality characteristics and coping: Their relation to trait anxiety in college students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(2), 255-264.
Weigold, I. K., Weigold, A., Russell, E. J., & Drakeford, N. M. (2014). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II in African American college students. Assessment, 21(6), 754. doi:10.1177/10 7319111452 4019
Whittaker, A. E., & Robitschek, C. (2001). Multidimensional family functioning: Predicting personal growth initiative. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 48(4), 420-427.
Worthington, R. L., & Whittaker, T. A. (2006). Scale development research: A content analysis and recommendations for best practices. The Counselling Psychologist, 34, 806-838.
Yakunina, E. S., Weigold, I. K., Weigold, A., Hercegovac, S., & Elsayed, N. (2013). International students’ personal and multicultural strengths: Reducing acculturative stress and promoting adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 91(2), 216-223.
Yalç?n, ?., & Malkoç, A. (2013). Adaptation of Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II to Turkish and investigation of psychometric properties. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 26(3), 258-266.
Yang, H., & Chang, E. C. (2014). Examining the structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II: Evidence for the importance of intentional self-change among Chinese. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96(5), 559-566. doi:10.1080/00223891.2014.8 86256
Yuan, K. H. (2005). Fit indices versus test statistics. Multivariate Behavioural Research, 40, 115-148.
Zaman, S., & Naqvi, I. (2018). Role of personal growth initiative as a moderator between stress and mental health among adolescents. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 8(1), 123-147.