Happiness and Personality Traits as Predictors of Optimism in School and College Teachers

Authors

  • Nasreen Akhtar Government College University
  • Samar Saleem Government College University

Keywords:

Optimism, happiness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to change, extroversion

Abstract

The present research was aimed at investigating the predictive role of personality traits and happiness in forecasting optimism of teachers working in public and private schools and colleges. The participants of this study included 154 teachers (male = 80; female = 74) with age range of 26-50 years. Data were collected by using Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Argyle & Hills, 2002), Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994), and International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 2006). Cronbach alpha of these scales on current sample was found good. Results revealed that happiness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness were significant positive correlates of optimism. Moreover, optimism was predicted by happiness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. Furthermore, teachers working in public schools and colleges had higher level of optimism as compared to teachers of private institutions. Furthermore, there were nonsignificant gender differences on optimism. Findings of present study has important implications for school and college teachers, administrators, and principals of educational institutions.

References

Anjum, A., & Amjad, N. (2016). Character strengths and wellbeing: A discriminant analysis between young adults from counselling centres and community samples. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 14(1), 3-14.

Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Crossland, J. (1989). Happiness as a function of personality and social encounters. Recent Advances in Social Psychology: An International Perspective, 189-203.

Ashraf, Z., Jaffri, A. M., Sharif, M. T., & Khan, A. (2012). Increasing employee organizational commitment by correlating goal setting, employee engagement and optimism at workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, 4(2), 71-77.

Barrett, L. F., & Salovey, P. (Eds.). (2002). The wisdom in feeling: Psychological processes in emotional intelligence. Guilford Press.

Boniwell, I. (2012). Positive psychology in a nutshell. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Boselie, J., Vancleef, L., Smeets, T., & Peters, M. (2014). Increasing optimism abolishes pain-induced impairments in executive task performance. Pain, 155(2), 334-340. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2013.10.014

Bulloch, E. C. (2011). Examining predictors of optimism in adolescence: Internal and external factors, (Masters Unpublished Dissertations). Brigham Young University, USA.

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2009). Action, affect, and two-mode models of functioning. In E. Morsella, J. A. Bargh, and P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of human action (pp. 298-327). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Francis, L. J., Ziebertz, H. C., & Lewis, C. A. (2003). The relationship between religion and happiness among German students. Pastoral Psychology, 51(4), 273-381.

Fleming, A. W. (2006). Positive psychology ‘‘three good things in life’’ and measuring happiness, positive and negative affectivity, optimism/hope, and well-being. (Master’s Thesis). http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/ edc_theses/32.

Furnham, A., & Berwin, C. R. (1990). Personality and happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1093-1096.

Gillham, J. E., Shatté, A. J., Reivich, K. J., & Seligman, M. E. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and explanatory style. Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice, 53-75.

Haleem, M., Masood, S., Aziz, M., & Jami, H. (2017). Psychological capital and mental health of rescue workers. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 32(2), 429-447.

Hasnain, N. (2014). Optimism, Hope, and Happiness as correlates of Psychological Well-Being among Young Adult Assamese Males and Females. IOSRJHSS, 19(2), 44-52. doi:10.9790/0837-19224452.

Hayat, S. Z., Khan, S., & Sadia, R. (2016). Resilience, wisdom, and life satisfaction in elderly living with families and in old-age homes. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 31(2), 475-494.

Hefferon, K., & Boniwell, I. (2011). Positive psychology. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill Open University Press.

Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082.

Kaneez, S. (2015). Perception of subjective well-being among divorced women: A comparative study of hindus and muslims. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13(2), 67-71.

Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of wellbeing measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 616-28.

Myers, D. (2000). The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People. American Psychologist, 55(1), 56-67. doi:10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.56

Myers, D., & Diener, E. (1997). Pursuit of happiness. New York: Scientific American, Inc.

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. (2004). Strengths of Character and Well-Being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619. doi:10.1521/jscp.23.5.603.50748.

Riolli, L., Savicki, V., & Cepani, A. (2002). Resilience in the face of catastrophe: Optimism, personality, and coping in the Kosovo crisis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(8), 1604-1627.

Scheier, M. E., & Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well?being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55(2), 169-210.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063.

Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. doi:10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.5

Sharpe, J., Martin, N., & Roth, K. (2011). Optimism and the Big Five factors of personality: Beyond Neuroticism and Extraversion. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(8), 946-951. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.07.033

Updegraff, J. A., & Suh, E. M. (2007). Happiness is a warm abstract thought: Self-construal abstractness and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(1), 18-28.

Veronese, G., Castiglioni, M., Tombolani, M., & Said, M. (2012). ‘My happiness is the refugee camp, my future Palestine’: Optimism, life satisfaction and perceived happiness in a group of Palestinian children. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26(3), 467-473.

Published

2020-12-31

Issue

Section

Articles