Resilience, Psychological Well-being, and Emotional Regulation: A Comparative Study of Military Personnel Vs. Civilian Population
Keywords:Resilience, psychological well-being, emotional regulation, endurance training, military vs. civilian
Present research aimed to know the difference between military personnel with endurance training and civilian population (with no endurance training), with respect to resilience, psychological well-being, and emotional regulation. Correlation and comparative design was used for this study. A sample of 180 participants with age range of 20-55 years was taken from different walks of military units and civilian population by using snowball sampling, and purposive sampling strategies respectively. The Adult Resilience Measure (Ungar & Liebenberg, 2011), Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002), and Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003) were used to assess variables. The results indicated that the military personnel with endurance training were significantly higher on psychological well-being than the civilian population (with no endurance training); while, the civilian population was significantly higher on expressive suppression facet of emotional regulation than the military personnel. There was a significant positive relationship of resilience with psychological well-being and emotional regulation in each group. Additionally, resilience predicted psychological well-being and emotional regulation in both groups, after controlling the effect of demographic characteristics. This research gives an insight into resilience, psychological well-being, and emotional regulation in military personnel with endurance training and the civilian populations with no endurance training. This research also adds to the body of literature in counselling and clinical psychology especially, in Pakistani perspective.
Bonano, G. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20-28. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59. 1.20.
Chen, H. (2016). A theoretic review of emotion regulation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 147-153. doi:10.4236/jss.2016.42020.
Curwen, J. (2016). The resiliency theory: Caregiver hope in adversity. Retrieved from https://positivepsychologyprogram.com/the-resilience- theory/
Enebrink, P., Björnsdotter, A., & Ghaderi, A. (2013). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and norms for Swedish parents of children aged 10-13 years. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 289-302. doi:10.5964/ejop.v9i2.535.
Everding, G. (2012). Military service changes personality makes vets less agreeable. Retrieved from https://source.wustl.edu/ 2012/02/military-service-changes- personality-makes-vets-less-agreeable/
Friesen, W., & Lutzker, D. (2008). Psychological reactions to infantry basic training. University of California School of Medicine. Retrieved from https://1ammce38pkj41n8xkp1iocwe-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/ uploads/2013/07/Psychological-Reactions-To- Infantry-Basic-Training.pdf
Gross, J., & John, P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348-362.
Harms, P., Krasikova, D., Vanhove, A., Herian, M., & Lester, P. (2013). Stress and emotional well-being in military organizations. The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Wellbeing, 11, 103-132. doi:10.1108/S1479-3555(2013)0000011008.
Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(1), 1073-1082.
Hurley, K. (2020). What is resilience? Your guide to facing life’s challenges, adversities, and crises. Everyday Health. Retrieved from https://www.everyd ayhealth.com/wellness/resilience.
Koole, S. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion, 23(1), 4-41. doi:10.1080/02699 930802619031.
Korth, T. (2017). Military endurance training. Retrieved https://www.sport snutritionsupplementguide.com/training/endurance /item/ 1555-military- endurance-training#.WjZrIUqWbIU.
Masten, A. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227-238. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.227.
McRae, K. (2016). Cognitive emotion regulation: A review of theory and scientific findings. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 119-124.doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.06.004 .
Ochsner, K., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(1), 242-249.
Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., Bisconti, T. L., & Wallace, K. A. (2006). Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 730-749. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Parsons, S., Kruijt, A. W., & Fox, E. (2016). A cognitive model of psychological resilience. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 7(3), 296-310. doi:10.5127/jep.053415
Pietrzak, R., Johnson, D., Goldstein, M., Malley, J., & Soutwick, S. (2009). Psychological resilience and post deployment social support protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from operations enduring freedom and Iraqi freedom. The Official Journal of Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 26(8), 745-751. doi:10.1002/da.20558.
Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D. (2004). Positive health: Connecting wellbeing with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 359, 1383-1394.
Souri, H., & Hasanirad, T. (2011). Relationship between resilience, optimism and psychological well-being in students of medicine. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1541-1544. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10. 299.
Sze, D. (2015, August). Scientists define the six criteria of well-being. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-sze/scientists-det ermine-the-_b7457502.html.
Tugade, M., & Friedrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2), 320-333. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2060.
Ungar, M. (2004). A constructionist discourse on resilience. Youth and Society, 35(3), 341 - 365. doi:10.1177%2F0044118X03257030.
Ungar, M., Brown, M., Liebenberg, L., Othman, R., Kwong, W. M., Armstrong, M.,... & Gilgun, J. (2007). Unique pathways to resilience across cultures. Adolescence, 42(166), 287-310.
Ungar, M., & Liebenberg, L. (2011). Assessing rresilience across ccultures using mixed-methods: Construction of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure-28. Journal of Mixed-Methods Research, 5(2), 126-149. doi:10.1177/1558689811400607.