Development and Validation of Gender Role Strain Scale for Men


  • Hana Arshad Lahore College for Women University
  • Sarah Shahed Forman Christian College


Gender role strain, familial and social pressures, marital life pressures, familial Pressures, workplace pressure


The main objective of present study was to develop an indigenous scale of Gender Role Strain Scale for Men (GRSS-M). Initially, an inclusive list of 33 items was compiled through conducting semi-structured interviews with one psychiatrist and three clinical psychologists, and performing a focus group with men. Ten experts were approached for content validity of GRSS-M and a list of 31 items was arranged after excluding two items. The Pilot Study (Phase 1) was carried out on a sample of 35 men from different professions, which revealed that GRSS-M items were easily comprehendible. In Phase 2, factor analysis was executed employing a sample of 400 men. Twenty five items were finalized with four emerging factors including Familial and Social Pressures, Marital Life Pressures, Financial Pressures, and Workplace Pressures with adequate alpha coefficients. The internal consistency of total GRSS-M was also found to be satisfactory. In Phase 3, psychometric properties of GRSS-M were established on sample of 200 men. The convergent validity of GRSS-M with Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale (Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) and discriminant validity of GRSS-M with Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) were acquired in desired direction. Significant mean differences were found through method of contrasted groups. The newly developed GRSS-M found to be a valid instrument with sound reliability for gauging role strain among Pakistani men.


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