Relationship of Graduate Students with their Academic Supervisors: A Study of Public and Private Sector Universities of Pakistan
Keywords:Supervisee, supervisor, satisfaction, behavioral intensions, Pakistan
This study is aimed to observe different aspects of working relationship between supervisees with their academic supervisors from the supervisees’ perspective. Respondents were inquired about networking, instrumental, and psychosocial help received from their supervisors; their satisfaction level with their supervisors; and about their behavioural intentions. Supervisees’ satisfaction was used as a mediator here. A descriptive study was carried out in public and private sector universities. Respondents were 350 MS and PhD level students. Linear Regression was used to analyze relationships among variables. Full mediation was observed in private sector universities, whereas partial mediation was found in public sector universities. Independent sample t-test was employed to observe significant mean differences between public and private sector universities. Significant mean scores differences were observed in independent samples t-test in instrumental and psychosocial help between these two types of universities.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes. Theories of Cognitive Self-Regulation, 50(2), 179-221.
Anderson, E. M., & Shannon, A. L. (1988). Toward a conceptualization of mentoring. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 38-42.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173.
Bird, S. J. (2001). Mentors, advisors and supervisors: Their roles in teaching responsible research conduct. Science and Engineering Ethics, 7(4), 455-468.
Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach's alpha. Bmj, 314(7080), 572.
Busch, J. W. (1985). Mentoring in graduate schools of education: Mentor’ perceptions. American Educational Research Journal, 22(2), 257-265.
Campbell, T. A., & Campbell, D. E. (2007). Outcomes of mentoring at-risk college students: Gender and ethnic matching effects. Mentoring & Tutoring, 15(2), 135-148.
Cheon, H. S., Blumer, M. L., Shi, A. T., Murphy, M. J., & Sato, M. (2008). The influence of supervisor and supervisee matching, role conflict, and supervisory relationship on supervisee satisfaction. Contemporary Family Therapy, 31(1), 52-67.
Chiappetta-Swanson, C., & Watt, S. (2011). Good practice in the supervision & mentoring of postgraduate students: It takes an academy to raise a scholar. USA: McMaster University.
Clark, R. A., Harden, L., & Johnson, W. B. (2000). Mentorrelationships in clinical psychology doctoral training: Results of a national survey. Teaching of Psychology, 27(4), 262-268.
Creighton, L., Creighton, T., & Parks, D. (2010).Mentoring to degree completion: Expanding the horizons of doctoral protégés, Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 18(1), 39-52.
Cronan-Hillix, T., Gensheimer, L. K., Cronan-Hillix, W. A., & Davidson, W. S. (1986). Students’ views of mentors in psychology graduate training. Teaching of Psychology, 13(3), 123-127.
Dreher, G. F., & Ash, R. A. (1990). A comparative study of mentoring among men and women in managerial, professional, and technical positions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5), 539-546.
Eby, L. T., & Lockwood, A. (2005). Protégés’ and mentors’ reactions to participating in formal mentoring programs: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(3), 441-458.
Eby, L. T., McManus, S. E., & Simon, S. A. (2000). The protege’s perspective regarding Negative mentoring experiences: The development of a taxonomy. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57(1), 1-21.
Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Society for Research in Child Development, 63(1), 103-115.
Glaser, E. M. (1980). Productivity gains through work life improvement. Personnel Journal, 57(1), 71-77.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate data analysis with readings (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International.
Harman, H. H. (1960). Modern factor analysis. University Press, Chicago.
Heppner, P. P., & Roehlke, H. J. (1984). Differences among supervisees at different levels of training: Implications for a developmental model of supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(1), 76-90.
Igbaria, M., & Greenhaus, J. (1992). Determinants of MIS employees’ turnover intentions: A structural equation model. Communications of the ACM, 35(2), 35-49.
Ives, G., & Rowley, G. (2005). Supervisor selection or allocation and continuity of supervision: PhD students’ progress and outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 30(5), 535-555.
James, L. R., & Brett, J. M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 307.
Jeanquart-Barone, S. (1996). Examination of supervisory satisfaction in traditional and nontraditional gender-based reporting relationships. Sex Roles, 34(9), 717-728.
Johnson, W. B. (2003). A framework for conceptualizing competence to supervisor. Ethics & Behavior, 13(2), 127-151.
Johnson, W. B. (2002). The intentional mentor: Strategies and guidelines for the practice of mentoring. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(1), 88-96.
Kam, B. H. (1997). Style and quality in research supervision: the supervisor dependency factor. Higher Education, 34(1), 81-103.
Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, and Company.
Kram, K. E. (1983). Phases of mentor relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 608-625.
Kram, K. E. (1988). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. University Press of America.
Ladany, N., Molinaro, M., & Wolgast, B. (1999, May). Psychotherapy supervisor ethical practices: Adherence to guidelines, the supervisory working alliance, and supervisee satisfaction. The Counseling Psychologist, 27(3), 443-474.
Lai, W. T., & Chen, C. F. (2011). Behavioral intentions of public transit passengers-The roles of service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and involveme. Elsevier, 18, 318-325.
Linde´n, J., & Brodin, M. O. (2013). Mentorship, supervision and learning experience in PhD education. Studies in Higher Education, 38(5), 639-662.
Lunsford, L. (2012). Doctoral advising or mentoring? Effects on student outcomes. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 20(2), 251-270.
Malik, S. A., & Malik, S. A. (2015). Graduate school supervisees' relationships with their academic mentors. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 7(2), 211-228.
Manathunga, C. (2007). Supervision as mentoring: The role of power and boundary crossing. Studies in Continuing Education, 29(2), 207-221.
McGuire, G. M. (1999). Do race and sex affect employees’ access to and help from mentors? Insights from the study of a large corporation. Mentoring Dilemmas: Developmental Relationships within Multicultural Organizations, 105-120.
Mobley, W. H. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 237-240.
Murray, M. (1991). Beyond the myths and magic of mentoring: How to facilitate an effective mentoring program. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Paglis, L. L., Green, S. G., & Bauer, T. N. (2006). Does adviser mentoring add value? A longitudinal study of mentoring and doctoral student outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 47(4), 451-476.
Peyton, A. L., Marton, M., Perkins, M. M., & Dougherty, L. M. (2001). Mentoring in gerontology education: New graduate student perspectives. Educational Gerontology, 27(5), 347-359.
Pearson, M. (2001). Research supervision-mystery and mastery. In J. Higgs & A. Titchen (Eds.) Practice knowledge and expertise in the health professions (Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann), 1-10.
Pearson, M., & Brew, A. (2002). Research training and supervision development. Studies in Higher Education, 27(2), 135-159.
Phillips, E., & Pugh, D. (2010). How to get a PhD: A handbook for students and their supervisors. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-973.
Pyhältö, K., Vekkaila, J., & Keskinen, J. (2015). Fit matters in the supervisory relationship: Doctoral students and supervisors perceptions about the supervisory activities. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 52(1), 4-16.
Ragins, B. R., & McFarlin, D. (1990). Perception of supervisor roles in cross-gender mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(3), 321-339.
Roscoe, J. T. (1975). Fundamental research statistics for the behavioral sciences (2nded.). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Scandura, T. A., Tejeda, M. J., Werther, W. B., & Lankau, M. J. (1996). Perspectives on mentoring. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(3), 50-56.
Sidhu, G. K., Kaur, S., Fook, C. Y., & Yunus, F. W. (2014). Postgraduate supervision: Comparing student perspectives from Malaysia and the United Kingdom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 151-159.
Steel, R. P., & Griffeth, R. W. (1989). The elusive relationship between perceived employment opportunity and turnover behavior: A methodological or conceptual artifact. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(6), 846-854.
Stevenson, J. F., Norcross, J. C., King, J. T., & Tobin, K. G. (1984). Evaluating clinical training programs: A formative effort. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 15(2), 218-229.
Swerdlik, M. E., & Bardon, J. I. (1988). A survey of mentoringexperiences in school psychology. Journal of School Pychology, 26(3), 213-224.
Tenenbaum, H. R., Crosby, F. J., & Gliner, M. D. (2001). Mentoring relationships in graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(3), 326-341.
Vonk, M. E., Zucrow, E., & Thyer, B. A. (1996). Female MSW Students' satisfaction with practicum supervision: The effect of supervisor gender. Journal of Social Work Education, 32(3), 415-419.
Waters, L. E., & Moore, K. A. (2002). Self-esteem, appraisal and coping: a comparison of unemployed and re-employed people. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 23(5), 593-604.
Wisker, G., Robinson, G., Trafford, V., Warnes, M., & Creighton, E. (2003). From supervisory dialogues to successful PhDs: Strategies supporting and enabling the learning conversations of staff and students at postgraduate level. Teaching in Higher Education, 8(3), 383-397.