Translation and Adaptation of Identity Style Inventory for Pakistani Adolescents


  • Anila Afzal University of Sargodha
  • Najma Iqbal Malik University of Sargodha
  • Mohsin Atta University of Sargodha


Identity style inventory, diffused/avoidant identity style, informational identity style, normative identity style


The present study was aimed to translate and adapt the Revised Identity Style Inventory (ISI-5) developed by Berzonsky et al. (2013) in an indigenous setting. A sample of 600 adolescents was selected from public and private schools in Punjab. The standard procedure of the back-translation method recommended by Water’s et al. (2006) was used to translate and adapt the Inventory. Exploratory Factor Analysis on the sample of adolescents (n = 350) demonstrated three distinct factors that is, diffuse/avoidant identity style, informational identity style, and normative identity style. Factorial structure elucidated that two items of normative identity style were discarded due to low factor loading whereas one item from normative style was loaded on informational identity style. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the independent sample of adolescents (n = 250) confirmed this three-factor model with good model fit indices. Alpha reliability coefficients were also computed. Moreover, the factorial structure of the scale is considered as validity index. Limitations and suggestions for further investigations were also discussed.


Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469-480.

Berzonsky, M. D. (1992). Identity style inventory (ISI-3): Revised version. Department of Psychology, State University of New York, USA. Retrieved from

Berzonsky, M. D. (2003). Identity Style and well-being: Does commitment matter? Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3, 131-142.

Berzonsky, M. D., & Kuk, L. S. (2000). Identity status, identity processing style, and the transition to university. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 81-98.

Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life-span: A process perspective on identity formation. In G. J. Neimeyer & R.A. Neimeyer (Eds.), Advances in personal construct psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 155-186). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Berzonsky, M. D. (2008). Identity formation: The role of identity processing style and cognitive processes. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 645-655. doi.10.1016/j.paid.2007.09.024

Berzonsky, M. D. (2011). A social-cognitive perspective on identity construction. In S.J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. Vignoles (Eds.), Hand book of identity theory and research: Structures and processes (Vol. 1, pp. 55-76). London, England: Springer. doi.10.1007/978-1-4419-7988-9_3

Berzonsky, M. D., & Ferrari, J. R. (2009). A diffuse-avoidant identity processing style: Strategic avoidance or self-confusion? Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 9, 145-158.

Berzonsky, M. D., & Kinney, A. (2008). Identity processing style and defense mechanism. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 39, 111-117.

Berzonsky, M. D., & Neimeyer, G. J. (1994). Ego identity status and identity processing orientation: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 425-435.

Berzonsky, M. D., & Sullivan, C. (1992). Social-cognitive aspects of identity style: Need for cognition, experiential openness, and introspection. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 140-155.

Berzonsky, M. D., & Kuk, L. S. (2005). Identity style, psychosocial maturity, and academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(1), 235-247. doi. 10.1016/j.paid.2005.01.010

Berzonsky, M. D., Branje, S. J. T., & Meeus, W. (2007). Identity processing style, psychosocial resources, and adolescents’ perceptions of parent-adolescent relations. Journal of Early Adolescence, 27, 324-335.

Berzonsky, M. D., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., IIse, S., Papini, D. R., & Goossens, L. (2013). Development and validation of the revised identity style inventory (ISI-5): Factor structure, reliability, and validity. Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 893-904. doi.10.1037/ a0032642

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185-216.

Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Berzonsky, M. D., & Meeus, W. (2009). The identity style inventory – Validation in Italian adolescents and college students. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 425-433.

Crocetti, E., & Shokri, O. (2010). Iranian validation of the identity style inventory. International Journal of Testing, 10, 185-199. doi.10.1080/ 1530505090343596

Duriez, B., & Soenens, B. (2006). Personality, identity styles, and religiosity: An integrative study among late and middle adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 119-135.

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2004). Personality, identity styles, and religiosity: An integrative study among late adolescents in Flanders (Belgium). Journal of Personality, 72, 877-910.

Field, A. (2005). Reliability analysis. In: A. Field (Ed.), Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.), Sage, London.

Hassan, B., Vignoles, V. L., & Schwartz, S. J. (2018). Researching identity styles In Pakistan: Confirmatory factor analysis and associations with commitment and value priorities. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1-15. 7843

Hejazi, E., Shahraray, M., Farsinejad, M., & Asgary, A. (2009). Identity styles and academic achievement: Mediating role of academic self-efficacy. Social Psychological Education, 12, 123-135.

Jakubowski, T. G., & Dembo, M. G. (2004). The relationship of self-efficacy, identity style, and stage of change with academic self-regulation. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 35, 7-24.

John M. T., Hirsch C., Reiber T., & Dworkin S. F. (2006). Translating the research diagnostic criteria for temporo mandibular disorders into German: evaluation of content and process. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 20, 43-52.

Jones, P.S., Lee, J. W., Pillips, L. R., Zhang, X. E., & Jaceldo, K. B. (2001). An adaptation of Brislin's translation model for cross - cultural research. Nursing Research, 50, 300-304.

Kagitçibasi, C. (1999). The model of family change: A Rejoinder. International Journal of Psychology, 34(1), 15-30.

Kunnen, E. S., & Bosma, H. A. (2000). Development of meaning making: A dynamic systems approach. New Ideas in Psychology, 18(1), 57-82.

McDermott, M. A. & Palchanes, K. (1992). A process for translating and testing a quantitative measure for cross-cultural nursing research. Journal of the New York State Nurses Association, 23, 12-15.

Nisbett, R. D., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice–Hall.

Nurmi, J. E., Berzonsky, M. D., Tammi, K., & Kinney, A. (1997). Identity processing orientation, cognitive and behavioral strategies and well-being. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 555-570.

Plummer, J. D. & Tanis O. A. (2015). Pre-service teachers developing coherent inquiry investigations in elementary astronomy. Science Education, 99(5), 932-957.

Schwartz, S. J. (1996). The structure of identity consolidation: multiple correlated construct or one super ordinate construct? An international Journal of Theory & Research, 2, 7-58.

Seaton, C. L., & Beaumont, S. L. (2008). Individual differences in identity styles predict proactive forms of positive adjustment. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 8, 249-268.

Sechrest, L., & Fay, T. L. (1972). Problems of translation in cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 3, 41-56.

Smits, I., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., Duriez, B., Berzonsky, M., & Goossens, L. (2008). Perceived parenting dimensions and identity styles: Exploring the socialization of adolescents’ processing of identity-relevant information. Journal of Adolescence, 4, 23-41.

Soenens, B., Duriez, B., & Goossens, L. (2005). Social-psychological profiles of identity styles: Attitudinal and social-cognitive correlates in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 107-125.

Tariq, S. (2012). Identity styles, causality orientations and psychological wellbeing among adolescents: A cross cultural comparison (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). National Institute of Psychology, Quad-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Waters, Davis, Boyd, Reddihough, Mackinnon, Graham, Lo, Wolfe, Stevenson, Bjornson, Blair & Ravens-Sieberer, (2006). CP QOL-Child Translation Guidelines

Weigert A. J. (1988). To Be or Not: Self and Authenticity, Identity and Ambivalence. In: Lapsley D. K., Power F. C. (Eds), Self, ego, and identity. New York: Springer.

Weigert, A. J., Teitge, J. S., & Teitge, D. W. (1986). Society and identity: Toward a sociological psychology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Whitbourne, S. K., Sneed, J. R., & Sayer, A. (2009). Psychosocial development from college through midlife: A 34-year sequential study. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1328-1340.

Xu, S. (2009). What are the Relations between identity styles and adolescence’s academic achievement? A study of college students at a private University in China. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 14(4), 299-311. doi.10.1080/02673843.2009.9748011