Procrastination Behavior and Self-efficacy Among Students: A Mixed Method Study


  • Noreena Kausar University of Gujrat
  • Bushra Bibi University of Gujrat
  • Bushra Akram University of Gujrat
  • Saliha Shabir University of Gujrat


Procrastination, self-efficacy, students’ behvaiour


The present research examined procrastination behavior and self-efficacy among postgraduate students by using mixed method research in two studies. Objective of this research was to measure procrastination, self-efficacy and further to explore the factors behind these behaviours through quantitative and qualitative research, respectively. For study-I, in quantitative research, sample of 282 students was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. To measure procrastination “Procrastination Scale” for student population (Lay, 1986) and for Self-efficacy “General Self-efficacy Scale” (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and Chi-square were used to analyse the data. Results indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between procrastination behavior and self-efficacy. The level of procrastination was found at non-clinical level 5(1.5%), sub-clinical level 165(68.5%), clinical level 110(39.0) and 2(0.7%) reported the need to seek clinical attention. Findings of chi-square illustrate no association of procrastination with demographic of age, faculty and GPA. In study-II, through qualitative approach, a focus group discussion was conducted with eight participants. Data were recorded by a tape recorder which was transcribed and analysed by using thematic analysis. Results revealed four themes from qualitative discussion; 1) description of procrastination behavior, 2) casual and precipitating factors, 3) impact on life and 4) strategies to overcome/reduce procrastination behavior. Through the findings of both studies, it can be concluded that procrastination behaviour is prevalent among students and there is a need to implement strategies to reduce this behaviour. 


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