Procrastination Behavior and Self-efficacy Among Students: A Mixed Method Study
Keywords:Procrastination, self-efficacy, students’ behvaiour
The present research examined procrastination behavior and self-efficacy among postgraduate students by using mixed method research in two studies. Objective of this research was to measure procrastination, self-efficacy and further to explore the factors behind these behaviours through quantitative and qualitative research, respectively. For study-I, in quantitative research, sample of 282 students was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. To measure procrastination “Procrastination Scale” for student population (Lay, 1986) and for Self-efficacy “General Self-efficacy Scale” (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and Chi-square were used to analyse the data. Results indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between procrastination behavior and self-efficacy. The level of procrastination was found at non-clinical level 5(1.5%), sub-clinical level 165(68.5%), clinical level 110(39.0) and 2(0.7%) reported the need to seek clinical attention. Findings of chi-square illustrate no association of procrastination with demographic of age, faculty and GPA. In study-II, through qualitative approach, a focus group discussion was conducted with eight participants. Data were recorded by a tape recorder which was transcribed and analysed by using thematic analysis. Results revealed four themes from qualitative discussion; 1) description of procrastination behavior, 2) casual and precipitating factors, 3) impact on life and 4) strategies to overcome/reduce procrastination behavior. Through the findings of both studies, it can be concluded that procrastination behaviour is prevalent among students and there is a need to implement strategies to reduce this behaviour.
Abramowski, A. (2018). Is procrastination all that “bad”? A qualitative study of academic procrastination and self-worth in postgraduate university students. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 158-170. doi:10.1080/10852352.2016.1198168
Afzal, S., & Jami, H. (2018). Prevalence of academic procrastination and reasons for academic procrastination in university students. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 28(1), 51-69.
Al-Qudah, F. M., Alsubhien, M. A., & Heilat, Q. M. (2014). The relationship between the academic procrastination and self-efficacy among sample of King Saud university students. Journal of Education and Practice 5, 101-111.
Ariani, D., & Susilo, Y. (2018). Why do it later? Goal orientation, self-efficacy, test anxiety, on procrastination. ECPS - Educational Cultural and Psychological Studies, (17). doi:10.7358/ecps-2018-017-wahy
Asri, D. N., Setyosari, P., Hitipeuw, I., & Chusniyah, T. (2017). The influence of project-based learning strategy and self-regulated learning on academic procrastination of junior high school students’ mathematics learning. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 88-96.
Baka, A. Z., & Khan, U. M., (2016). Relationships between self-efficacy and the academic procrastination behaviour among university students in Malaysia: A General Perspective. Journal of Education and Learning, 10,265-274
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ 0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Beswick, G., Rothblum, E., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents to student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23, 207-217.
Burka, J. B., & Yuen, L. M. (1983). Procrastination: Why do you do it, what to do about it. CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 31, 503-509.
Cerino, E. (2014). Relationships between academic motivation, self-efficacy, and academic procrastination. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19(4), 156-163. doi:10.24839/2164-8204.jn19.4.156
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Forjaz, P. (2018). Academic Procrastination: The relationship between academic procrastination and multidimension perfectionism, motivation and self-efficacy. Undergraduate thesis, Dublin, National College of Ireland. Retrieved from http://trap.ncirl.ie/id/eprint/3281
Gabriel, C. K. (2015). Impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in eldoret town. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(22), 106-111.
Grund, A., & Fries, S. (2018). Understanding procrastination: A motivational approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 121, 120-130.
Klingsiek, K. B., Grund, A., Schmid, S., & Fries S. (2013). Why students procrastinate: A qualitative approach. Journal of College Student Development, 54, 397-412.
Hannok, W. (2011). Procrastination and motivation beliefs of adolescents: A Cross-cultural study, (Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation). University of Alberta.
Hussain, I., & Sultan, S. (2010). Analysis of procrastination among university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1897-1904. doi: 10. 1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.385
Lay, C. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474-495
Lukas, C. A., & Berking, M. (2018). Reducing procrastination using a smart phone-based treatment program: A randomized controlled pilot study. Internet interventions, 12, 83-90.
Maguire, M., & Delahunt, B. (2017). Doing a thematic analysis: A practical, step-by-step guide for learning and teaching scholars. All Ireland Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 8(3), 3351-3360. http:// ojs.aishe.org/index.php/aishe-j/article/view/335
Moon, S. M., & Illingworth, A. J. (2005). Exploring the dynamic nature of procrastination: A latent growth curve analysis of academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 297-309.
Pajares, F. (2002). Gender and perceived self-efficacy in self-regulated learning. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 116-125.
Schouwenburg, H. C. (2004). Academic procrastination: Theoretical notions, measurement, and research. In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Counselling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 3-17). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs, (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON
Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 31(4), 503-509. doi:10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2063
Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65
Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8, 454-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j. 1467-9280.1997.tb00460.x
Van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1401-1418. doi:10.1016/s0191-8869(02)00358-6
Voge, J. (2007). Classroom resources for addressing procrastination. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 23(2), 88-96.
Wäschle, K., Allgaier, A., Lachner, A., Fink, S., & Nückles, M. (2014). Procrastination and self-efficacy: Tracing vicious and virtuous circles in self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 29, 103-114. http://dx. doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.09.005.
Ziegler, N., & Opdenakker, M. C. (2018). The development of academic procrastination in first-year secondary education students: The link with metacognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, and effort regulation. Learning and Individual Differences, 64, 71-82.
Ziesat, H. A., Rosenthal, T. L., & White, G. M. (1978). Behavioral self-control in treating procrastination of studying. Psychological Reports, 42, 56-69.